Jofra Archer played for his former school side in Barbados without the knowledge of managing director of England men’s cricket Rob Key.
Fast bowler Archer, 28, has not played since March because of an elbow injury.
He was in Barbados training with England’s white-ball sides as part of his recovery.
Archer took 4-18 for Foundation against Lords on day one of a three-day match on Sunday, bowling a mix of pace and left-arm spin.
He is listed on the Barbados Cricket Association Division One scores website as also having scored 11 with the bat for the side linked to his former school Christ Church Foundation.
The second-tier game continues this weekend, but it is understood Archer has already returned to England.
When asked about Archer playing in the match, Key said: “I’m not aware of that – I’ll find out.”
Archer was not selected in the Test squad to tour India from January.